In July 2020, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) announced that it would estimate a 20% probability of global warming relative to pre-industrial values of more than 1.5 degrees Celsius in at least one year between 2020 and 2024, with 1.5 degrees Celsius as a key threshold under the Paris Agreement.   The IPCC notes that climate change is limited only by a “substantial and sustainable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.” While the benefits of presenting a single global temperature threshold as a dangerous climate change can be discussed, the general scientific view is that an increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be an unacceptable risk – potentially leading to mass extinctions, more severe droughts and hurricanes, and an arid region. While it is not clear that global warming will cause “sudden and irreversible changes” in Earth`s systems, the risk of exceeding the threshold only increases if temperatures rise. The national emissions targets set by the Kyoto Protocol exclude international air and sea transport. Parties to the Kyoto Protocol can use changes in agriculture, land use and forestry (UTCATF) to achieve their goals.  Utcatical activities are also called sink activities. Indeed, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry estimates that since 1750, one-third of global warming has been caused by land use changes.  Specific criteria apply to the definition of forestry under the Kyoto Protocol. The Paris Agreement reflects the collective belief of almost every nation on the planet that climate change is humanity`s war to fight it, and reveals America`s climate-sceptics – including Trump – as global outliers.
Indeed, the mobilization of support for climate action across the country and around the world gives hope that the Paris Agreement has marked a turning point in the fight against climate change. We can all contribute to the cause by looking for ways to reduce contributions to global warming, at the individual, local and national levels. The effort will be worth the reward of a safer and cleaner world for future generations. This IPCC report unpacks the effects of global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius. Scientists have been warning for years of the disastrous consequences for the environment if global temperatures continue to rise at the current rate. The average temperature of the earth has already risen by about 1oC above pre-industrial levels. In a 2018 special report, the IPCC predicted that without a drastic reduction in carbon emissions, the world will reach 1.5 degrees Celsius of warming between 2030 and 2052. The NDC partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to improve cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial support they need to achieve major climate and sustainable development goals. The NDC partnership is led by a steering committee made up of industrialized and developing countries and international institutions and is supported by a support unit organized by the World Resources Institute and based in Washington, D.C. and Bonn, Germany. The NDC partnership is co-chaired by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and has 93 Member States, 21 institutional partners and 10 associate members. The Kyoto Protocol implemented the UNFCCC`s goal of reducing the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to a “level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic disturbances to the climate system” (Article 2).