The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013 and that is why the parties to the agreement are currently negotiating its accession to the Association Agreement between Central America and the EU. The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021. [20] The NI protocol, known as “backstop,” is temporary and applies unless it is replaced by a future relationship agreement that the parties will attempt to reach by December 31, 2020. The protocol provides that the common travel area and North-South cooperation will continue to a large extent as they do today, as well as the internal electricity market (so that some EU legislation on wholesale electricity markets will continue to apply). While the free movement of workers was central to the first agreement of the European Economic Community, the development of European labour law was a gradual process.

Ohlin`s 1956 report originally recommended that labour standards not be harmonized, although a general principle of combating discrimination between men and women was introduced in the early contracts. Increasingly, the lack of labour rights has been deemed insufficient, given that the capacity of a “race to the bottom” exists in international trade when companies can relocate employment and production to low-wage countries. Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement. [30] On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement,[10] the largest vote against the British government in history. [31] The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day. [10] On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons. [32] A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons. [34] [35] [36] An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.

[37] If the withdrawal agreement is approved, an EU law (withdrawal agreement) will be introduced to implement the withdrawal agreement in UK law.